Banking in India explained

Service your needs through the banking institutions

Confused with the choice of a banking institution for your business? Right kind of funding is important for the health of any business. In other words, funding at the appropriate time gives more freedom for creativity and innovation. A well-funded business has more leverage for expansion and growth.

In India, we have a number of banks catering to different customers. Also, we have a mix of public and private sector banks servicing a variety of needs.

Banking institutions
Banking institutions in India to service your needs

In the course of this blog, I will walk you through the different types of banking institutions in India.

BROAD CLASSIFICATION OF BANKS

1. SCHEDULED BANKS

Scheduled banks are included in the second schedule of RBI Act,1934. By being a scheduled bank, one acquires membership of the clearinghouse. Also, the banks can get loans from RBI at the bank rate. Any bank with a capital of more than 5 lakh qualifies as a scheduled bank. Further, scheduled banks keep a cash reserve ratio with the RBI.

2. NON-SCHEDULED BANKS

Non-scheduled banks are not part of the second schedule of RBI Act,1934. The capital requirement of a non-scheduled bank is less than 5 lakhs. Non-scheduled banks are not members of the clearinghouse. Also, they do not have access to loans from RBI at the bank rate. Unlike scheduled banks, non-scheduled banks do not keep a cash reserve ratio with the RBI.

Non-scheduled banks are also called as local area banks in India. Coastal Local Area Bank Ltd, Capital Local Area Bank Ltd, Krishna Bhima Samruddhi Local Area Bank Ltd, Subhadra Local Area Bank Ltd are some of the examples.

TYPES OF SCHEDULED BANKS

1. COMMERCIAL BANKS

A commercial bank provides banking services with a profit motive. They ensure adequate credit creation and stability in a nation’s economy.

  • PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS: Public sector banks have the government as the major shareholder(more than 50%). Over 75% of the banking sector business comes under the purview of the Public sector banks. There are 12 major PSBs in India such as SBI, Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Central Bank of India, etc. On the whole, there are 27 PSBs in India.
  • PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS: In private sector banks, non-government entities form the major shareholders. There are 22 private sector banks in India. Private sector banks provide a slightly less interest rate as compared to PSBs. Similarly, Private sector banks constitute over 15% market share in the country. Some major private sector banks in India are ICICI, HDFC, Axis, IDFC, etc.
  • FOREIGN BANKS: Foreign banks cater to the jurisdictional laws of both the parent and destination country. 1% of branch network in India constitutes foreign banks. Also, foreign banks have a Priority Sector Lending of 40% and a minimum capital requirement of 5 billion.
  • REGIONAL RURAL BANKS: Regional Rural Banks caters to the funding needs of the rural communities in India. It draws its operating and functional powers from the Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976. In addition, RRBs also cater to payments in government schemes like MGNNEGA and government pension programs. RRB has a joint shareholding of Central government(50%), State government(15%) and Sponsor Bank(35%).
  • PAYMENT BANKS: It is a new category of banks with limited functionality of a bank. For example, payments banks do not issue loans. The deposit limit is 1 lakh per customer maximum. Further, payments banks have a minimum capital of 100 crores.
  • SMALL FINANCE BANKS: Small finance banks service the needs of the small and marginal entities like small farmers, traders, businesses, etc. Small finance bank has 100 crores paid-up capital and a priority sector lending of 75%. Further, they do not lend to big corporates or groups.

2. COOPERATIVE BANKS

Cooperative banks function on the basis of cooperative principles. The ownership of cooperative banks lies with the customers. In India, cooperative bank categorization takes place on the basis of Short term and Long term lending options. Short term lending takes the form of Primary Agricultural Cooperative Societies (PACCS) at the village level, District Central Cooperative Banks at the District level and State Cooperative Bank at the State level. The long term lending is a two-tier structure with Primary Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (PARDBs) at the village level and State Agriculture and Rural Development Banks.

  • URBAN COOPERATIVE BANKS: Urban cooperative banks finances the needs of urban areas, registered under the cooperative societies act. They largely cater to small businesses in urban areas like small traders, low and middle-income groups, etc. UCB regulation happens via both the State Government and the Central bank. State government laws cater to the UCB’s administration while the central bank laws apply in case of regulation.
  • RURAL COOPERATIVE BANKS: Rural cooperative banks finances the needs of rural areas. It caters to agriculture, livestock, rural employment sector, etc.

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